The term "Sapphire" comes from the Hebrew "sappir" which means blue stone. Formerly, he pointed various blue gems, such as lapis lazuli, from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. By 1800, the sapphire was recognized as a variety of corundum, like ruby. Today, the name sapphire is used for all gem-quality corundum that is not red. There are blue sapphires, but also pink, green or yellow sapphires ... However, if the color is not mentioned, the word sapphire unqualified always refers to the blue sapphire. The blue color of the sapphire is attributed to the presence of iron and titanium. Violet color vanadium, yellow and purple iron trivalent chrome pink color, the color orange vanadium and iron. The most sought after color is a cornflower blue franc. The hardness of sapphire is 9. The "Starfish" sapphire which is a sapphire asterism is due to the presence of inclusions of rutile needles crystallized at 60 ° or 120 ° in the stone. The star sapphire is cut en cabochon. Under the rays of the sun appears a star of six branches often. Deposits of sapphires found in many places, the most significant being in Australia, Biramnie (Myanmar), Sri Lanka (Ceylon), and Thailand (Siam). Sri Lanka (Ceylon) provides sapphires since antiquity. Deposits of sapphires from Kashmir, India, very famous, are now exhausted. Large sapphires are rare.